Validating the Digital Competence (Dig-Comp 2.1) Framework in Higher Education Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Non-Western Perspective


  • Mussa S Abubakari Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam
  • Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam
  • Juraidah Musa Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam
  • Kassim Kalinaki Department of Computer Science, Islamic University in Uganda



Digital Competence, DigComp 2.1, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA, Higher Education


This Pilot study aimed at validating the Digital Competence (Dig-Comp 2.1) Framework instrument within the context of a non-Western developing country. With the rapid advancements in technology and the increasing integration of digital tools in various domains, evaluating learners’ digital competencies is crucial to ensure the effective utilisation of digital resources in educational settings. However, existing frameworks often lack validation in developing and non-western country contexts. Therefore, this study addresses this gap by assessing the reliability and validity of the Dig-Comp 2.1 Framework Questionnaire in a higher education context, involving a sample of ninety-nine (99) university students from Uganda. By implementing a quantitative design, we collected data through an online survey administered to the selected student samples. The analyses employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and confirmatory composite analysis (CCA). The findings indicated that the Dig-Comp framework portrayed an excellent fit with pilot data as indicated by various model fit indices through CFA. Moreover, the CCA demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity of the Dig-Comp 2.1 framework, suggesting that the instrument’s measures are appropriate and reliable for future investigations. The results of this study can contribute to enhancing the understanding of digital competence and its measurement in non-western countries, thereby informing policies and interventions to bridge the digital divide.


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How to Cite

Abubakari, M. S., Zakaria, G. A. N., Musa, J., & Kalinaki, K. (2023). Validating the Digital Competence (Dig-Comp 2.1) Framework in Higher Education Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Non-Western Perspective. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 3(6), 15–26.