University Learners’ Lexical Cohesion Techniques Focusing on English and Kurdish Languages


  • Mustafa Altun Tishk International University, Iraq
  • Soran Abdullah University of Raparin, Iraq
  • Bander Hamad Wsen University of Raparin, Iraq
  • Sahand Said Qadir Raparin University, Iraq
  • Lava Omar Ismail Raparin University, Iraq



Cohesion, Lexical Cohesion, Coherent, Reiteration, Collocation, Kurdish Lexical Cohesion


This research aimed to analyze the role and significance of lexical cohesion in making sentences more coherent. The research also seeks on comparing the Kurdish and English lexical cohesions respectively. For doing that, the research found out that both departments of English and Kurdish languages have more familiarity with the use and functions of reiteration than the collocations. The total number of cases of reiteration in the English department was 29, in the Kurdish department was 23, however, the number of collocations in the English department was 30, but in the Kurdish department were only 3 cases. Because both languages do have lexical cohesion academically, the cause of the limited number of collocations in the Kurdish department refers to the lack of students' skills of writing and their familiarity with the lexical cohesion usages. Students of the Kurdish department have more familiarity merely with reiteration than collocations. Therefore, they ought to study the elements of lexical cohesion to make their writings more coherent and meaningful.


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How to Cite

Altun, M., Abdullah, S., Wsen, B. H., Qadir, S. S., & Ismail, L. O. (2022). University Learners’ Lexical Cohesion Techniques Focusing on English and Kurdish Languages. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 2(3), 23–36.