Improving Teaching and Learning in Large Classes in Kenyan Primary: Creating Interaction Opportunities for Learners – An Action Research


  • Ruth Otienoh Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Kenya



Large Classes, Interaction, Pair Work, Group Work, Acion Research


The introduction of Free Primary Education in Kenya in 2003 resulted in large class of about 50-  100 learners. Teachers were not prepared, nor were they supported o effectively teach and handle these classes. Teaching and learning in these classes is generally teacher centred, associated with whole class instruction, lecturing and other expository methods with minimal learner interaction, resulting in rote learning. This study sought to improve teaching and learning in large classes by creating opportunities for learner interaction. Collaborative action research with four teachers in two schools in Nairobi was adapted. This paper is based on the action research process of which pair work and group work was improved upon to create interaction opportunities for learners. Findings indicate that unlike the reconnaissance stage, which was dominated by Teacher Led Recitation (TLR) with minimal learners’ interaction engagement, there were more activities of pair work, teacher elicitation and seat work. Moreover, teachers were able to diversify the type of questions asked to cater for creation of interaction opportunities among learners.


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How to Cite

Otienoh, R. (2024). Improving Teaching and Learning in Large Classes in Kenyan Primary: Creating Interaction Opportunities for Learners – An Action Research. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 4(2), 103–117.