Head Teachers’ Leadership Competencies on School Management in Public Primary School: A Case of Ilemela District – Tanzania


  • Eliana Rutemelwa St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania
  • Demetria Gerold Mkulu St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania
  • Daniel O Onyango St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania




Head Teachers, Leadership, Competence, Public Primary School


The study aimed at examining the effects of school head teachers’ leadership competencies on school management in public primary schools in Ilemela District. The study has motivated by Katz Theory of Managerial Skills which was developed by Robert Kartz in 1974. This study intended to assess the factors that hinder school head teachers from using leadership competence in public primary. The study employed mixed research approach whereby convergent parallel design was used. Furthermore, the study used 104 respondents and data were collected through interview guide and questionnaire. The study considered all aspects of trustworthiness in qualitative research. Apart from that, the researcher used sampling techniques which were purposive, simple random and stratified sampling.  Qualitative data were analysed and presented through thematic analysis while quantitative data were presented by using tables and charts. The findings revealed that public primary school head teachers’ leadership competencies employed in managing schools in Ilemela District were human relations and conceptual competencies. Additionally, the findings showed that head teachers had not been able to use technical competencies effectively in order to motivate teachers and assist them to improve their content knowledge and pedagogical skills.  However, in order to improve their ability head teachers should be given training on managing schools, provision of seminars and workshops from time to time in order to sharpen their ability in managing schools. The study recommended that, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology should find strategies of improving the course on educational management and leadership to ensure that students complete their diploma and degrees in education with enough competencies on school management.



Download data is not yet available.


Creswell, J. W., & Plano C. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2015). A concise introduction to mixed methods research, Sage.

EdQual Tanzania Policy Brief, (2010). Primary school leadership for education quality in Tanzania, University of Dar Es Salaam.

Gamala, J. J., & Marpa, E. P. (2022). School environment and school heads’ managerial skills: Looking into their relationships to school’s performance. International Journal on Social and Education Sciences (IJonSES), 4(2), 218-235. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijonses.285

Jaboya, F. (2018). Participation of stakeholders in the implementation of the enhanced-school based management (SBM). PhD Dissertation, University of Caloocan City.

John, U., & Mkulu, D. G. (2020). Influence of school heads’ leadership styles on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Nyamagana District, Mwanza, Tanzania. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences, 5(6), 2327 - 2340. https://ijels.com/

Koskei, J. K., Sang, C. & Ngeno, V. (2020). Relationship between head teachers’ leadership competencies and effective school management in public primary schools in Narok county, Kenya, Global Journal of Educational Research, 19, 21-38, www.globaljournalseries.com.

Kuluchumila, R. C. (2014). Preparation and development of secondary school heads: what should be done in Tanzania? British Journal of Education 2(2) 9-39.

Kuluchumila, R. C. (2015). Researching education leadership in Tanzanian secondary schools. Research, theory and practice. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325967963.

Laghari, M. A., Siddiqui, A. & Shaheen, A. (2021). Impact of headteachers’ conceptual skills on teacher’s performance at public secondary schools. International Research Journal of Education and Innovation, 2.2(21), 167-177.

Latido, K. L. & Ching, D. A., (2021). School heads moral principles and the work motivation of public secondary school teachers, International Multidisciplinary Research Journal. www.ioer-imrj.com.

Lema, P. R. & Mwila, P. M., (2022). Community involvement in school activities: Its effectiveness in promoting quality of learning in public secondary schools in Hai District, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, VI(IX), 613-620.

Manafa, I. F. (2018). Communication skills needed by principals for effective management of secondary schools in Anambra State. Online Journal of Arts, Management and Social Sciences, 3(2) 17 –25.

Mbawala, M. B. (2017). An assessment of the implementation of fee free basic education in Tanzania: A Case of Ruangwa District’s District Council, Lindi Region (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania).

Mukarromah, I., Mudjito, M., Purbaningrum, E. (2019). The effect of managerial skills (Conceptual, Human, and Technical) of headmasters to the effectiveness of Islamic senior high schools in Jombang District. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(6), 539-544

Mwita, M. S. (2021). Human skills by heads of secondary schools towards effective school management in Makambako Town, Tanzania. East African Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 2(4), 31-37. https://doi.org/10.46606/eajess2021v02i04.0124

Nakiyaga, D., Serem, D. K. & Ssentamu, (2021). Stakeholders' participation in school management and enhancement of learners' academic achievement in government-aided secondary schools in Uganda, The international Journal of Business and Management, 9(5), www.theijbm.com.

Ramalepe, M. L. (2015). Meaning and significance of moral purpose: Perspectives of 15 School Managers, International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 2(3) 151-158; www.arcjournals.org

Robescu, D. F., Fatol, D., Pascu, D. & Draghici, A. (2021). A study on leadership competencies, http://creativecommons.org/licenses.

Sabimbona, F. E. (2010). Exploring school leadership development in Tanzania: A survey study of twenty newly appointed heads of schools in contextually different state secondary schools in the Dar Es salaam Region of Tanzania. PhD Thesis, University of Birmingham.

Tawala za Mikoa na Serikali za Mitaa (TAMISEMI), (2022). Mkakati wa kuimarisha ufundishaji na ujifunzaji ngazi ya elimumsing: Mji wa Serikali-Mtumba

Tulowitzki, P. (2015). The development of educational leadership and teaching professions in Germany. ECPS Journal, 11, 45 – 55. http://www.ledonline

Vicera, C. R. & Maico, E. G. (2023). Impact of School Heads Management Styles on the Teacher's Instructional Competence and School Performance. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, 1, 1-10.

Vincent, F. (2012). An appraisal of the preschool inspection process: Development and testing of preschool inspection checklist and classroom observation form. Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, University of Dodoma.




How to Cite

Rutemelwa, E., Mkulu, D. G., & Onyango, D. O. (2023). Head Teachers’ Leadership Competencies on School Management in Public Primary School: A Case of Ilemela District – Tanzania. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 3(6), 149–163. https://doi.org/10.53103/cjess.v3i6.202