Integration of Vocational Education and Training in Public Secondary Schools: A Study of Nzega Town Council, Tabora Region, Tanzania


  • Judith Makono St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania
  • Demetria Mkulu St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania
  • Frank Mwamakula St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania



Integration, Vocational Education and Training, Secondary Schools


This study looked into the integration of vocational education and training (VET) in public secondary schools in Nzega Town Council, Tabora, Tanzania. VET plays a developing vital position in providing employment opportunities for students after schooling. On the contrary, limited investment on VET would harm the young generation by producing dormant, inactive and unemployable learners. Such individuals would be unable to cope with challenges and manage the knowledge learning and application in 21st digital era. This study employed the behaviourism theory developed by John B. Watson in 1913. It adopted a mixed research approach and a convergent parallel design. A sample of 140 participants out of 597 was employed including students and teachers who were selected through simple random sampling, heads of school and District Secondary Education Officer (DSEO) who were selected purposively. Questionnaires and interview guides were used as the research instruments. Quantitative data were analysed through SPSS version 21, while qualitative data were analysed thematically. The results revealed that agricultural, computer, decorating and food and nutrition are VET activities which could be integrated in public secondary schools. Also, the study found some ways of integrating VET which include: introduction of practical activities, strictly follow up of practical activities, provision of teaching and learning materials and presence of fixed timetable. VET was found to be beneficial to students as it increases skills and knowledge to the students, improve cooperation among students and teachers, enhance students’ awareness on practical skills, prepares students for advanced science and technology, and easier and faster to successful career path. The study recommended that the government should increase the provision of teaching and learning materials and presence of fixed timetable for VET activities to be integrated in the schools effectively. Responsible organs from DSEO’s office and quality assurance office should visit regularly public secondary schools to see how VET activities are integrated in the schools. Furthermore, heads of schools need to be creative and cooperative in planning and designing different VET activities in their schools.


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How to Cite

Makono, J., Mkulu, D., & Mwamakula, F. (2023). Integration of Vocational Education and Training in Public Secondary Schools: A Study of Nzega Town Council, Tabora Region, Tanzania. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 3(6), 129–148.