Parenting Styles and Learners’ Performance: Evidence from Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana


  • Mogadime Rammolai-Segokgo Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana
  • Som Pal Baliyan Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana
  • Gorata Gofaone Moshe Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana



Academic Achievement, Authoritarian, Authoritative, Neglectful, Parenting Styles, Performance, Permissive, Secondary Schools


Education is a lifetime achievement that contributes towards the socio-economic development of the society particularly youth. Parenting style plays an important role in education of their children and thus, shaping their career. The study analysed the influence of different parenting styles on the academic performance of students in Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana. Quantitative data was collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire through a survey of randomly sampled 130 students (n = 130) in Junior Secondary Schools. One way Analysis of Variance revealed that none of the parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful style had significant influence on students’ academic performance. It implied that parents are not the only factors that can affect the children’s academic performance. As parenting styles shown insignificant influence on student academic performance, a similar study can be conducted by including some other parental factors which might have influence on students’ performance. In order to gain deeper understanding on the influence of parenting styles on student’s academic achievement, a qualitative study can be conducted using perceptions of students and parents.


Bada, S. O., & Pwajok, M. A. (2020). Influence of parenting styles on students’ academic performance for education quality assurance in some selected secondary schools in Katsina Metropolis. International Journal of Educational Management, 18(1).

Baliyan, S. P., Kagiso, M, Keregero, K. J. B. & Mabusa, K. (2021). Poor academic performance of students in agriculture at primary schools in Botswana: Analysis of causes and ways to improve. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 20(9), 116-135.

Baliyan, S. P. & Khama, D. (2020). How distance to school and study hours after school influence students’ performance in Mathematics and English: A comparative analysis. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 7(2), 209-217.

Baliyan, S. P., Rao, K. S. M. & Baliyan, P. S. (2012). Influence of parental education and income level on students’ performance in senior secondary schools in Botswana. Global Research Journal on Mathematical and Science Education, 1(2), 135-158.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Boateng, S., Ampofo, E. T., Sefah, E. A., Baah, A., & Azewara, M. A. (2021). Pontificating the relationship between parenting styles and academic performance of senior high school students in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 20(3), 247-262.

Botswana Examinations Council (BEC) (2013). Junior Certificate Examination (JCE) results released. Retrieved from

Boudah, D. J. (2011). Conducting educational research: A guide in completing a major project. United States of America: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Candelanza, A. L., Buot, E. Q. C., & Merin, J. A. (2021). Diana Baumrind’s parenting style and child’s academic performance: A Tie-in. Psychol. Educ. J, 58, 1553-6939.

Chao, R. K. (1996). Chinese and European American mothers' beliefs about the role of parenting in children's school success. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27(4), 403-423.

Checa, P., Abundis-Gutierrez, A., Pérez-Dueñas, C., & Fernández-Parra, A. (2019). Influence of maternal and paternal parenting style and behavior problems on academic outcomes in primary school. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 378.

Chukwuere, J. E., Mavetera, N., & Mnkandla, E. (2016). An empirical study on the success factors to consider in developing e-learning systems: A learner-oriented system. Asian Journal of Information Technology, 15(16), 3087 – 3102.

Gay, R. L., Mills, E. M & Peter, W. A. (2011). Educational research: Competencies for Analysis and Application. (10th Edition) United States: Pearson Education, Inc.

Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 143.

Hayek, J., Schneider, F., Lahoud, N., Tueni, M., & de Vries, H. (2022). Authoritative parenting stimulates academic achievement, also partly via self-efficacy and intention towards getting good grades. Plos One, 17(3), e0265595.

Baidoo-Anu, D., Abiaw, P., & Kaedebi-Donkor, R. (2019). Parenting styles as a predictor of academic achievement of junior high school students in Aowin and Suaman District, Ghana. Parenting, 10(19), 47-61.

Kim, J. Y. J., & Kim, E. (2021). Effect of positive parenting styles as perceived by middle school students on academic achievement and the mediation effect of self-esteem and academic engagement. Sustainability, 13(23), 13233.

Kwarteng, P., Asiamah, F., Twumasi, A. O., Nkansah, J. O., Issaka, J., & Afetorgbor, S. K. (2022). Parental involvement in the academic performance of students in ghana: socio-economic status. Open Journal of Educational Research, 2(3), 114–125.

Macheng, B. & Uandii, P. B. (2014). Parental involvement level: A Factor associated with differences in performance among students at tsodilo secondary school in Botswana, Research Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(1), 8-12.

Masud, H., Ahmad, M. S., Jan, F. A., & Jamil, A. (2016). Relationship between parenting styles and academic performance of adolescents: Mediating role of self-efficacy. Asia Pacific Education Review, 17(1), 121-131.

Midgley, J. (2014). Social development: Theory and practice. London; Sage Publications.

Moradian, J., Alipour, S., & Shehni Yailagh, M. (2021). The causal relationship between parenting styles and academic performance mediated by the role of academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation in the students. Journal of Family Psychology, 1(1), 63-74.

Moswela, B. (2014). Students’ academic achievement: Whose responsibility and accountability. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(10)46-57.

Mphale, L. M., & Mhlauli, M. B. (2014). An Investigation on students academic performance for junior secondary schools in Botswana. European Journal of Educational Research, 3(3), 111-127.

Nel, M. E. (2013). The effect of parenting style on academic achievement in early years education. HKU Theses Online (HKUTO).

Nwune, E. C., Okwuduba, E. N., & Anidi, A. C. (2021). Parenting styles as a correlate of academic achievement of primary school pupils in Awka South, Nigeria. Journal Plus Education, 28(1), 30-39.

Obiunu, J. J. (2018). Influence of parenting styles on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ethiope East local government area Delta State. Int J Educ Technol Learning, 2(2), 54-8.

Radhika, M., Joseph, R. A (2013). Study to assess the parenting styles and academic performance of school children. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 6.14.

Rahman, M., Begum, F., & Nahar, N. (2021). Impact of parenting and achievement motivation on students’ academic performance. International Journal of Asia Pacific School Psychology, 2(2), 38-44.

Republic of Botswana. (1994). Revised national policy on education (RNPE). Gaborone: Government Printer.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016). Research methods for business students (Seventh). Nueva York: Pearson Education.

Seet, M. M., Rabbani, M., Hosseinian, S., Latha, R., & Mohan, S. B. V. R. (2022). Parenting styles and academic achievement among Malaysian students: Mediating role of parental involvement. Journal of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, 8(1), 122-138.

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63(5), 1266-1281.

Sumanasekera, I., Abd Hamid, J., Khatibi, A., & Azam, S. F. (2021). Involvement and style of parents on student motivation towards student performance with the moderating effect of academic causal factors: Development of a conceptual model. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 21(1), 10-24.

Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273-1296.

Yan-Li, S., Roslan, S., Abdullah, M. C., & Abdullah, H. (2020). Do family environment, parental care and adolescent externalizing problem mediate the relationship between parental readiness and adolescent school performance among commuter families? Community, Work & Family, 23(3), 342-365.

Yang, J., & Zhao, X. (2020). Parenting styles and children’s academic performance: Evidence from middle schools in China. Children and Youth Services Review, 113, 105017.

Zahed Zahedani, Z., Rezaee, R., Yazdani, Z., Bagheri, S., & Nabeiei, P. (2016). The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 4(3), 130–134.

Zhu, Q., Cheong, Y., Wang, C., & Tong, J. (2021). The impact of maternal and paternal parenting styles and parental involvement on Chinese adolescents’ academic engagement and burnout. Current Psychology, 1-14.




How to Cite

Rammolai-Segokgo, M., Baliyan, S. P., & Moshe, G. G. (2022). Parenting Styles and Learners’ Performance: Evidence from Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 2(5), 1–16.